How to make a rocket for school and college project

How to make a rocket for school and college project

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Hello guys here we talk about How to make a rocket for school and collage project. This is a very easy to make a rocket and understand how to work rocket. Here we gonna talk about solid propellant rocket , liquid fuel rocket , plasma propulsion rocket , ion rocket , Rocket Powered Aircraft , Rocket Pack. And dont forget to comment plz share us you opinion.

1.Solid propellant rocket

Rocket

Solid fuel rockets used in various military operations since the 14th century. However, due to their low performance, these are not used to power modern large launch vehicles, but they are still employed as primary boosters to increase vehicle payload capacity.

 

Solid-propellant rockets are simply those rockets whose engines generate thrust using solid propellants. What are solid propellants you ask? They are basically composites, composed of a mixture of solid oxidizer such as ammonium nitrate in a binder agent with powdered energetic compounds and additives like aluminium.

 

2.liquid fueled rocket

rocket nozzel

solid fuel rockets are used in various military operations since the 14th century. However, due to their low performance, these are not used to power modern large launch vehicles, but they are still employed as primary boosters to increase vehicle payload capacity.

As the name indicates, liquid fueled rockets use liquid propellants to generate thrust. In contrast to solid propellant, liquid ones are composed either of single or two chemicals (bipropellants). Liquid propellants are largely preferred over solid propellants due to their high density and efficiency levels.

Liquid propellants are also used in hybrid rockets, where a rocket motor uses one solid and one gas or liquid propellants over two phases.

 

3.plasma propulsion rocket

In a plasma propulsion engine, the thrust is generated from quasi- neutral plasma (where ion and electrons are packed in equal numbers). Over the years, many institutions have worked or currently working on plasma-fueled engines including Iranian Space Agency, Australian National University and the European Space Agency.

VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) is the newest types of plasma fueled rocket propulsion engines that ionize the propellant into a plasma with the help of radio waves. One of the many advantages of a plasma propulsion engine is its higher specific impulse value or  Isp than almost any other type of rockets.

While plasma engines are still not entirely utilized commercially, a few small-scale versions have already been successfully deployed and tested. In 2011, NASA, along with a Massachusetts-based propulsion company launched the first ever Hall thruster (plasma) into space on board Tacsat-2 experimental satellite.

4.ion rocket

Solid fuel rockets are used in various military operations since the 14th century. However, due to their low performance, these are not used to power modern large launch vehicles, but they are still employed as primary boosters to increase vehicle payload capacity.

Ion engines use electrostatic or electromagnetic force to accelerate ions in order to produce thrust. In other words, instead of forcing out the pressurized gas of a nozzle, the ion thrusters use xenon gas and accelerate them to extremely high velocities. They are more efficient than conventional rockets, especially when outer space travel is in question.

That’s because ion engines cannot operate in the lower atmosphere, where ions are present outside the engine.

5.Rocket Powered Aircraft

Rockets can also be used in aircraft. Rocket planes can attain much higher speeds than a similar sized jet aircraft, but only over smaller distances. They were first engineered by the Germans during the First World War. Due to the fact that these engines don’t need atmospheric oxygen, rocket powered aircraft are perfect for high-altitude flights.

Rockets are also used to assist the main propulsion units, which is widely known as rocket assisted take off or RATO. One of the popular rocket powered aircraft was the North American X-15 Hypersonic rocket that holds the official world record for the highest speed ever achieved by any manned aircraft i.e. 4,520 miles per hour.

Due to the heavy use of propellants, rocket engines are mostly used in interceptor aircraft and spaceplane

 

6. Rocket Pack

A Rocket pack is a low-power propulsion device that carry individuals from one place to another over small distances. These devices generally use hydrogen peroxide as fuel, but oxygen and methane powered liquid fueled rocket packs were also developed in 1920s. Earliest hydrogen peroxide powered rocket belt was developed by now defunct company Bell Aerosystems for the U.S Army in the early 1950s.

Here we are taking about Liquid rocket this is a best project for school,college

Liquid rocket engine

In liquid fuel rocket there are basically four parts

  • Fuel chamber
  • Pumps
  • Combustion chamber
  • Nozzle

At first we talking about fuel chamber so what is fuel chamber?

The fuel of a liquid-propellant rocket is usually kerosene or liquid hydrogen; the oxidizer is usually liquid oxygen. They are combined inside a cavity called the combustion chamber. … Because of the pumps and fuel lines, liquid engines are much heavier than solid engines.In the fuel chamber there are two type of fuel tank liquid oxygen and liquid fuel.

Secondly we talking about fuel pump so what is fuel pump?

The Flometrics Pistonless rocket fuel pump is a highly reliable pump that uses two pumping chambers alternatively filled with fluid and pressurized in sequence to maintain a steady flow of pressurized propellant to a rocket engine.  Because of its reliable and innovative technology, it is both cost effective and more feasible when compared to the pressure fed and turbopump designs. The oxygen and liquid fuel

 

Thirdly is combustion chamber. What is combustion chamber?

A rocket engine is a type of jet engine that uses only stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet. Rocket engines are reaction engines, obtaining thrust in accordance with Newton’s third law. Most rocket engines are internal combustion engines, although non-combusting forms (such as cold gas thrusters) also exist. Vehicles propelled by rocket engines are commonly called rockets. Since they need no external material to form their jet, rocket engines can perform in a vacuum and thus can be used to propel spacecraft and ballistic missiles.

Compared to other types of jet engines, rocket engines are by far the lightest, and have the highest thrust, but are the least propellant-efficient (they have the lowest specific impulse). The ideal exhaust is hydrogen, the lightest of all gases, but chemical rockets produce a mix of heavier species, reducing the exhaust velocity. Rocket engines become more efficient at high velocities, due to greater propulsive efficiency and the Oberth effect. Since they do not require an atmosphere, they are well suited for uses at very high altitudes and in space.

Injector

Liquid-fuelled rockets force separate fuel and oxidiser components into the combustion chamber, where they mix and burn. Hybrid rocket engines use a combination of solid and liquid or gaseous propellants. Both liquid and hybrid rockets use injectorsto introduce the propellant into the chamber. These are often an array of simple jets – holes through which the propellant escapes under pressure; but sometimes may be more complex spray nozzles. When two or more propellants are injected, the jets usually deliberately cause the propellants to collide as this breaks up the flow into smaller droplets that burn more easily.

 

Combustion chamber

The combination of temperatures and pressures typically reached in a combustion chamber is usually extreme by any standard. Unlike in airbreathing jet engines, no atmospheric nitrogen is present to dilute and cool the combustion, and the temperature can reach true stoichiometric ratios. This, in combination with the high pressures, means that the rate of heat conduction through the walls is very high.

In order for fuel and oxidizer to flow into the chamber, the pressure of the propellant fluids entering the combustion chamber must exceed the pressure inside the combustion chamber itself. This may be accomplished by a variety of design approaches including turbopumps or, in simpler engines, via sufficient tank pressure to advance fluid flow. Tank pressure may be maintained by several means, including a high-pressure helium pressurization system common to many large rocket engines or, in some newer rocket systems, by a bleed-off of high-pressure gas from the engine cycle to autogenously pressurize the propellant tanks  For example, the self-pressurization gas system of the BFR is a critical part of SpaceX strategy to reduce launch vehicle fluids from five in their legacy Falcon 9 vehicle family to just two in BFR, eliminating not only the helium tank pressurant but all hypergolic propellants as well as nitrogen for cold-gas reaction-control thrusters

 

And last Nozzle

The hot gas produced in the combustion chamber is permitted to escape through an opening (the “throat”), and then through a diverging expansion section. When sufficient pressure is provided to the nozzle (about 2.5-3 times ambient pressure), the nozzle chokes and a supersonic jet is formed, dramatically accelerating the gas, converting most of the thermal energy into kinetic energy. Exhaust speeds vary, depending on the expansion ratio the nozzle is designed for, but exhaust speeds as high as ten times the speed of sound in air at sea level are not uncommon. About half of the rocket engine’s thrust comes from the unbalanced pressures inside the combustion chamber, and the rest comes from the pressures acting against the inside of the nozzle (see diagram). As the gas expands (adiabatically) the pressure against the nozzle’s walls forces the rocket engine in one direction while accelerating the gas in the other

The most commonly used nozzle is the de Laval nozzle, a fixed geometry nozzle with a high expansion-ratio. The large bell- or cone-shaped nozzle extension beyond the throat gives the rocket engine its characteristic shape.

The exit static pressure of the exhaust jet depends on the chamber pressure and the ratio of exit to throat area of the nozzle. As exit

pressure varies from the ambient (atmospheric) pressure, a choked nozzle is said to be

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